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      天氣因為氣候變化而變得更糟

      所屬教程:科學前沿

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      tianxiaoyu

      2019年08月06日

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      Weather is getting worse because of climate change

      天氣因為氣候變化而變得更糟

      Climate change is one of the most serious public health issues facing America today. The annual average temperature in the United States has increased by 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit from 1901 to 2016 and is expected to rise an additional 2.5 degrees, according to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. This has led to increased drought, more frequent wildfires, and other effects of climate change that can’t be stopped.

      氣候變化是當今美國面臨的最嚴重的公共衛生問題之一。根據美國全球變化研究項目(U.S. Global Change Research Program)的數據,從1901年到2016年,美國的年平均氣溫上升了1.8華氏度,預計還將再上升2.5華氏度。這導致了越來越多的干旱,更頻繁的野火,以及其他無法阻止的氣候變化的影響。

      According to the Fourth National Climate Assessment of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, it is extremely likely that greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are the dominant cause of the increase in the rate of global warming since the mid-20th century.

      根據美國全球變化研究計劃(U.S. Global Change Research Program)第四次國家氣候評估報告,人類活動產生的溫室氣體排放極有可能是20世紀中葉以來全球變暖速度加快的主要原因。

      天氣因為氣候變化而變得更糟

      In recent decades, a new branch of climate research has emerged that attempts to define the link between human activities and extreme weather events such as floods, heatwaves, droughts, and snowstorms. According to climate journalism site Carbon Brief, scientists concluded in 68% of the more than 230 extreme weather events they studied that human-caused climate change increased the likelihood or severity of the event.

      近幾十年來,出現了一個新的氣候研究分支,試圖定義人類活動與極端天氣事件(如洪水、熱浪、干旱和暴風雪)之間的聯系。根據氣候新聞網站Carbon Brief的數據,科學家在他們研究的230多個極端天氣事件中,68%的案例得出結論,人為造成的氣候變化增加了該事件發生的可能性或嚴重性。

      Areas with already extreme climates tend to be more susceptible to climate change, and even more extreme weather events. The Southwestern United States, for example – the driest and hottest part of the country – is getting hotter and drier, leading to increased drought and wildfire.

      已經處于極端氣候的地區更容易受到氣候變化的影響,甚至更容易發生極端天氣事件。例如,美國西南部——這個國家最干燥、最熱的地區——正變得越來越熱、越來越干燥,導致干旱和野火增加。

      In other parts of the country, global warming has led to rising sea levels and increased evaporation, ultimately leading to increased precipitation. Earlier this year, heavy rainfalls along the Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Mississippi River corridors have led to substantial flooding throughout the Midwest, leading to substantial property damage and dozens of deaths. Many of the places are also home to these popular summer getaways we’re losing to climate change.

      在美國其他地區,全球變暖導致海平面上升和蒸發增加,最終導致降水增加。今年早些時候,伊利諾斯州、密蘇里州、阿肯色州和密西西比州的強降雨導致整個中西部地區洪水泛濫,造成大量財產損失和數十人死亡。許多地方也是這些受歡迎的避暑勝地的家園,我們正因為氣候變化而失去這些地方。

      天氣因為氣候變化而變得更糟

      1. Alaska

      The significant increase in wildfire activity in Alaska in recent decades is associated with man-made and natural factors. In 2015, wildfires burned through 5.1 million acres across the state, the second worst fire season since record keeping began in 1940. According to a report published by the American Meteorological Society in December 2016, human-induced climate change may have increased the risk of such a severe fire season in Alaska by 34% to 60%.

      阿拉斯加

      近幾十年來阿拉斯加野火活動的顯著增加與人為和自然因素有關。2015年,野火燒毀了全州510萬英畝的土地,這是自1940年有記錄以來第二嚴重的火災季節。根據美國氣象學會2016年12月發布的一份報告,人類引發的氣候變化可能使阿拉斯加發生如此嚴重火災的風險增加了34%至60%。

      2. Arctic Ocean: Alaska

      In 2016, the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska experienced its most intense marine heatwave – defined as at least five-day periods in which sea surface temperatures are extremely high for the region – since at least 1982, when satellite temperature records began. According to the American Meteorological Society, human-induced climate change increased the change of such an extreme weather event occurring by as much as 50 times.

      北冰洋:阿拉斯加

      2016年,白令海和阿拉斯加灣經歷了至少自1982年衛星溫度記錄開始以來最強烈的海洋熱浪——該地區至少有5天的海洋表面溫度極高。據美國氣象學會(American Meteorological Society)稱,人類活動導致的氣候變化使此類極端天氣事件的發生頻率增加了50倍之多。

      3. Arizona: Phoenix

      According to the National Weather Service, temperatures in Phoenix averaged 77.3 degrees in 2017 – the hottest year on record. Phoenix is one of the fastest-warming cities in the country, and in 2018 there were a record 182 heat-related deaths confirmed in Phoenix and surrounding Maricopa County, the third consecutive year the death toll has reached a record high.

      亞利桑那州:鳳凰城

      根據美國國家氣象局(National Weather Service)的數據,2017年鳳凰城的平均氣溫為77.3度,是有記錄以來最熱的一年。鳳凰城是美國變暖速度最快的城市之一,2018年鳳凰城及其周邊馬里科帕縣確認的與高溫有關的死亡人數達到創紀錄的182人,這是死亡人數連續第三年創下新高。


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